Prevention, Treatment, and Recovery

September 2, 2011

September is National Recovery Month. This year the theme is “Join the Voices for Recovery: Recovery Benefits Everyone” please join Rebekah Children’s Services and SAMHSA in promoting awareness in your community or search for a local event to attend.   Millions of Americans of all ages experience substance use and mental health disorders; prevention and treatment programs have been proven to work successfully.  We need your help through public awareness to spread the word about available programs and the need for more. 


The following chart from SAMHSA shows the most commonly misused substances in the United States and their adverse side effects.

 

Substance

Other Names5,6

Immediate Intoxication Effects7

Negative Health Effects8

Average Age of First Use in 2009 (vs. in 2008) and Current Rate Among Youth9,10,11

Number of People Who Used it in the Past Month in 2009 vs. in 200812,13

Alcohol, Inhalants, and Tobacco

Alcohol

Booze

Depressant: Impaired coordination, memory and judgment; slurred speech; decreased attention and memory

Seizures, chronic sleep problems, respiratory depression, respiratory arrest, damage to vital organs, high blood pressure, negative pregnancy outcomes (including Fetal Alcohol Syndrome)

16.9 years in 2009 (17 years in 2008); (rate of current alcohol use is 3.5% among youth aged 12 or 13, and 13% among youth aged 14 or 15)

130.6 million people in 2009 (similar to 129 million people in 2008)

Tobacco products

Chew, dip, smoke, cigarettes, cigars, smokeless tobacco, snuff, spit tobacco

Stimulant: Increased adrenaline, metabolism, and concentration

Increased blood pressure and heart rate, lung disease, coronary heart disease, stroke, cancer

17.5 years in 2009 (17.4 years in 2008); (rate of current tobacco use is 11.6% among youth aged 12 to 17)

69.7 million people in 2009 (similar to 70.9 million people in 2008)

Gases, nitrites, aerosols (inhalants)

Ether, chloroform, nitrous oxide, isobutyl, isoamyl (poppers, snappers, whippets, laughing gas)

Stimulant: Loss of inhibition, loss of motor coordination, slurred speech, and muscle weakness

Rapid or irregular heartbeat, cardiovascular and nervous system damage

16.9 years in 2009 (15.9 years in 2008)*

0.6 million people in 2009 (similar to 0.64 million people in 2008)

Illicit Drugs

Cocaine (including crack cocaine)

Coke, snow, flake, blow, bump, toot, C, white lady, crack, rock

Stimulant: Increased alertness, attention, and energy

Rapid or irregular heartbeat, stroke, muscle spasm, chest pain, nausea

20 years in 2009 (19.8 years in 2008); (rate of current cocaine use is 0.3% among youth aged 12 to 17)

1.6 million people in 2009 (similar to 1.9 million people in 2008)

Ecstasy

Adam, E, X, eve, XTC, decadence, M&M

Stimulant: Increased energy, feelings of peacefulness and acceptance

Involuntary teeth clenching, loss of inhibition, increased heart rate, anxiety, blurred vision

20.2 years in 2009 (20.3 years in 2008)*

760,000 people in 2009 (increased from 550,000 people in 2008)

Heroin

Big H, dope, smack, white horse

Feeling of euphoria, flushing of skin, dry mouth, and heaviness of the extremities

Collapsed veins, infection of the heart lining and valves, abscesses, liver disease, kidney disease, pulmonary complications

25.5 years in 2009 (23.4 years in 2008)*

0.2 million people in 2009 (same as in 2008)

Hallucinogens

LSD, peyote, acid, mellow yellow, boomers, shrooms

Delusions, changes in senses, mood, and body temperature

Elevated heart rate, increased blood pressure, persistent mental health problems

18.4 years in 2009 (18.4 years in 2008); (rate of current hallucinogen use is 0.9% among youth aged 12)

1.3 million people in 2009 (similar to 1.1 million people in 2008)

Marijuana

Pot, weed, hash, grass, reefer, Mary Jane, ganja

Distorted perceptions, impaired coordination, and loss of memory

Increased heart rate, respiratory infection, impaired memory, anxiety

17 years in 2009 (17.8 years in 2008); (rate of current marijuana use is 7.3% among youth aged 12 to 17)

16.7 million people in 2009 (increased from 15.2 million people in 2008)

Methamphetamine

Speed, meth, chalk, ice, crank

Stimulant: Agitation, anxiety, insomnia, and decreased appetite

Rapid or irregular heartbeat, stroke, high blood pressure, delusions, anxiety, hallucination

19.3 years in 2009 (19.2 years in 2008)*

502,000 people in 2009 (increased from 314,000 people in 2008)

Prescription Drugs

Pain relievers (Opioids: Hydrocodone, oxycodone, morphine, codeine, fentanyl)

Vike (Vicodin®), Oxy, O.C. (Oxycontin®), M (roxanol), Schoolboy (empirin with codeine), China white, dance fever (Actiq®)

Pain relief, feeling of euphoria, and drowziness

Restlessness, muscle and bone pain, drowsiness, seizure, respiratory depression, decreased heart rate

20.8 years in 2009 (21.2 years in 2008); (rate of current nonmedical use of prescription pain relievers is 2.7% among youth aged 12 to 17)

5.3 million people in 2009 (increased from 4.7 million people in 2008)

Psychotherapeutics

Prozac®, Zoloft®, Ritalin®

Increased attention and alertness, and dizziness

Blurred vision, rapid heartbeat, skin rashes, persistent muscle spasms, tremors

21 years in 2009 (22 years in 2008)*

7 million people in 2009 (increased from 6.2 million people in 2008)

Sedatives

Haldol®, Thorazine®, Navane®, Prolixin®, Mellaril®, Trilafon®

Depressant: Reduced anxiety, induced sleep, and lowered inhibitions

Seizures, chronic sleep problems, respiratory depression, respiratory arrest

19.7 years in 2009 (15.9 years in 2008)*

370,000 people in 2009 (increased from 234,000 people in 2008)

Tranquilizers

Benzos (Mebaral®, Ativan®, Xanax®, Valium®, Nembutal®, Librium®)

Depressant: Reduced anxiety, induced sleep, and lowered inhibitions

Seizures, chronic sleep problems, respiratory depression, respiratory arrest

22.4 years in 2009 (24.4 years in 2008)*

2 million people in 2009 (similar to 1.8 million people in 2008)

Stimulants (methylphenidate, amphetamines)14

Adderall®, Ritalin®, Concerta®

Increased calming, "focusing" effect

Increased blood pressure, heart rate, and body temperature; decreased sleep and appetite; stroke

21.5 years in 2009 (21.3 years in 2008)*

1.3 million people in 2009 (increased from 904,000 people in 2008)

*Data for current rate among youth not available

Using data from the National Institute on Drug Abuse, The Partnership for a Drug-Free America, and the 2008 and 2009 National Survey on Drug Use and Health, the chart provides an overview of the most commonly misused substances in the United States, including how prescription medications are abused. The chart can be used to raise awareness about the prevalence of these substances and the need for substance use and mental disorder treatment and recovery support services. (taken from http://www.recoverymonth.gov/Recovery-Month-Kit/Targeted-Outreach/Commonly-Misused-Substances.aspx)